In 舍费尔 理论 听觉训练 is the 艺术 of practising better 聆 it is an 实验 and 现实 approach to the 声波 对象 a kind of becoming aware of the new 材料 of 樂/乐 while distrusting preconceived 观念 and relying first and foremost upon what is 听 It is without 记谱法 because it is 意图 to apply to the whole universe of 声 already available or capable of being made and 不 only to the 声 of 传统 樂/乐 of measurable 音高 and 产生 by a 限制 数 of 乐器 This 听觉训练 is situated more in the area of 听觉 than 制作 it is descriptive rather than being operational The criteria which it seeks to bring out are 不 表示 by symbols leading to notations for new 乐谱 but as a deepening of the act of 聆 seeking in 声 their 樂/乐 潜力 prior to any plan of 记谱法 or 作曲 It is embodied in the five 操作 of his programme of 樂/乐 研究 Every 声波 对象 or criterion as the 实验 听觉训练 progresses is 个别 situated in 种类 类型学 in classes 形态学 in 风格 性格学 in species 分析 The 终 two of these are treated more like a hypothese whereas the first two are significantly detailed Paraphrase of Michel Chion 1983 Guide des Objets Sonores Eds Buchet/Chastel Paris 1995 translation by John Dack/Christine North