This 术语 is one of the key 理论上 概念 in Schaeffer's 理论 There are four 模式 of 聆听 Écouter Ouïr Entendre Comprendre which can be arranged in a table with four 片段 numbered from one to four They arise from the crossing over of two dualisms which are encountered universally in every perceptual 活动 the Abstract/Concrete dualism and the Objective/Subjective dualism a confrontation between the 对象 of 感知 and the 活动 of the perceiving consciousness 舍费尔 represents them as follows

抽象 Concrete
1 ÉCOUTER Objective
2 OUÏR Subjective

Écouter is 聆听 to someone to something and through the intermediary of 声音 aiming to identify the 源 the 事件 the cause it treats the 声音 as a sign of this 源 this 事件 Concrete/Objective

Ouïr to perceive by the 耳 to be struck by 声音 it is the crudest 电平/级别 the most elementary of 感知 so we 听 passively lots of things which we are 不 trying to 聆听 to nor 理解 Concrete/Subjective

Entendre here according to its etymology 手段(意味着) showing an 目的 to 聆听 [écouter] choosing from what we 听 [ouïr] what 尤其 兴趣 us thus determining what we 听 Abstract/Subjective

Comprendre 手段(意味着) grasping a meaning 价值 by treating the 声音 like a sign referring to this meaning as a 功能(函数) of a 语言 a 代码 语义 听觉 Abstract/Objective

These four 模式 can be summarised more or less in this sentence I 听 ouïr you despite myself although I did 不 聆听 écouter at the door but I didn't 理解 comprendre what I 听 entendre Paraphrase of Michel Chion 1983 Guide des Objets Sonores Eds Buchet/Chastel Paris 1995 translation by John Dack/Christine North