细胞自动控制/Xi4 Pao1 Zi4 Dong4 Kong4 Zhi4
Systems of cellular automata (CA) are like linked automata systems. Some CA systems are initialized by putting a different random number in each cell. Although each cell executes the same rule, the random number within each cell allows a chance for individualistic behavior. Complex behavior emerges as many simple automata interact locally and assemble themselves into hierarchies.
Simple cellular automata can be extended in many ways, for example, by incorporating feedback from the past, or through multilevel organization, wherein different rules apply at each level. It is also possible to combine CA with other types of algorithms. In this case the CA often function as "transducers" (processing input or output signals) for nonautomata procedures.
In any case, the behavior of a CA system generally falls into one of four classes:
1. The system "disappears" or "dies" after a small number of steps; the initial random structure is "eaten up" by the interacting cells.
2. Evolution leads to fixed or pulsating periodic behavior.
3. Evolution leads to chaotic patterns that appear to contain special instances of organized behavior, such as repetitions with variations. Fluctuations increase at a regular pace.
4. Strange attractors (irregular cyclic patterns) appear. Behavior propagates irregularly; contraction and expansion is unpredictable.
In scientific studies, CA have been used as models of evolution, growth, and wave propagation, processes that have analogies in different types of musical development. Composers have applied CA as pitch, duration, and timbre selectors in MIDI-based composition systems. The composer prepares a table that maps each result generated by a CA state to a particular pitch, duration, or timbre.
CA have also been applied to the synthesis of sound. Bowcott used CA to generate parameters for the screen-based approach to granular synthesis of sound, to generate self-modifying waveforms, and to create amplitude envelopes for an additive synthesis engine.
(Source: Curtis Roads, The Computer Music Tutorial. MIT Press. 1995)
A cellular automaton (CA) is an array of identically programmed automata, or "cells", which interact with one another. Its state is a variable that takes a different separate for each cell. The state can be either a number or a property. For instance if each cell represents part of a landscape, then the state might represent (say) the number of animals at each location or the type of forest cover growing there. Its neighbourhood is the set of cells that it interacts with. In a grid these are normally the cells physically closest to the cell in question. Musicians have used CA to aid in the control of structures at macro- and micro-levels.
(Source - http://life.csu.edu.au/complex/tuto... - Note: this source has been discontinued.)
术语顾问/Consultant to terminology